What is an elbow?

What is an elbow?

The steel elbow is a kind of connecting pipe commonly used in pipe installation. It connects two pipes with the same or different nominal diameters to make the pipe turn at a certain angle. According to the angle, there are three most commonly used 45° and 90°180°, and other abnormal angle elbows such as 60° are also included according to engineering needs . A bending radius of less than or equal to 1.5 times the diameter of the pipe belongs to the elbow, and 1.5 times larger than the pipe diameter belongs to theelbow . Elbows are made of cast iron, stainless steel, alloy steel, malleable iron, carbon steel, non-ferrous metals and plastics. The way to connect to the pipe is: 

Direct welding (the most common way) flange connection, hot melt connection, electrofusion connection, threaded connection and socket connection. According to the production process, it can be divided into: welding elbow, punching elbow, push elbow, casting elbow, butt weld elbow.

Classification of elbows Elbow standard
Elbow manufacturing method Seamless elbow
Welding elbow Socket elbow
Reducing elbow Long radius elbows & short radius elbows

20190122085742 40421 - What is an elbow?

Classification of elbows

Divided by material 
Carbon steel: ASTM/ASME A234 WPB, WPC 
Alloy: ASTM/ASME A234 WP 1-WP 12-WP 11-WP 22-WP 5-WP 91-WP911, 15Mo3 15CrMoV, 35CrMoV 
Stainless steel: ASTM/ASME A403 WP 304-304L-304H-304LN-304N 
ASTM/ASME A403 WP 316-316L-316H-316LN-316N-316Ti 
ASTM/ASME A403 WP 321-321H ASTM/ASME A403 WP 347-347H 
Low temperature steel: ASTM/ASME A402 WPL3-WPL 6 
High Performance Steel: ASTM/ASME A860 WPHY 42-46-52-60-65-70 
Cast steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, copper, aluminum alloy, plastic, argon leaching, PVC, PPR, RFPP (reinforced polypropylene). 
According to the production method, it can be divided into push, press, forge, and casting. 
According to the manufacturing standards, it can be divided into national standard, electric standard, ship standard, chemical standard, water standard, American standard, German standard, Japanese standard and Russian standard. 
Divided by its radius of curvature: can be divided into long radius elbows and short radius elbows. The long radius elbow refers to the outer diameter of the tube whose radius of curvature is equal to 1.5 times, that is, R = 1.5D; the short radius elbow refers to its radius of curvature equal to the outer diameter of the tube, that is, R = 1.0D. (D is the elbow diameter and R is the radius of curvature). 
If divided according to the pressure level: there are about seventeen kinds, which are the same as the American pipe standards: Sch5s, Sch10s, Sch10, Sch20, Sch30, Sch40s, STD, Sch40, Sch60, Sch80s, XS; Sch80, SCH100, Sch120, Sch140, Sch160, XXS; the most commonly used are STD and XS. 
According to different shapes and uses, it can be divided into: grooved elbow, ferrule elbow, double bearing elbow, flange elbow, reaming elbow, dull elbow, inner and outer elbow, punching elbow, push Elbows, socket elbows, butt weld elbows, inner wire elbows, etc. 

Elbow standard

Japanese standard 
JIS B2311 universal steel butt welded pipe fittings 
JIS B2312 steel butt welded pipe fittings 
JIS B2313 steel plate butt welded pipe fittings 
JIS B2316 steel socket welded pipe fittings 
Pipe fittings implement standard US standards: 
ASME/ANSI B16.9 Factory-made forged steel butt welded pipe fittings 
ASME/ANSI B16.11 Socket weld and thread forged fittings 
ASME/ANSI B16.28 Steel butt welding small radius elbows and turning back bends 
ASME B16.5 pipe flange and flange fittings 
MSS SP-43 forged stainless steel butt welded pipe fittings 
MSS SP-79 Socket Welded Reducer Insert 
MSS SP-83 Socket weld and threaded union 
MSS SP-97 integral reinforced socket for socket weld, threaded and butt weld ends 
Power standard 
Typical Design Manual for Parts and Components of Steam Water Pipes of GB2000 Thermal Power Plant 
DL/T515-93 power station elbow 
D-GD87-1101 Typical design of pipe parts and components 
Pipe fittings implement standard chemical standards: 
HGJ514 carbon steel, low alloy steel seamless butt welded pipe fittings 
HGJ528 steel seamed butt welded pipe fittings 
HGJ10 forged steel socket welded pipe fittings 
HGJ529 forged steel socket weld, threaded and butt welded pipe 
HGJ-44-76-91 Steel pipe flanges, gaskets, fasteners 
HG20592-20635 Steel pipe flanges, gaskets, fasteners 
Sinopec Standard 
SH3406 -1996 petrochemical steel pipe flange 
SH3408 -1996 Steel butt welded seamless pipe fittings 
SH3409-1996 Forged steel socket welded pipe fittings 
SH3410 -1996 Forged steel socket welded pipe fittings 
SH3065-1994 Petrochemical tubular furnace sharp bend pipe technical standard 
National standard 
GB/T12459-2005 steel butt welded seamless pipe fittings 
GB/T13401-2005 Steel plate butt welded pipe fittings 
GB/T14383 forged steel socket welding pipe fittings 
GB/T17185-1995 steel flange fittings 
Pipe fittings implement the standard petroleum standard: 
SY/T0510-1998 Steel butt welded pipe fittings 
SY/T5257-2004 steel elbow 
02S403 National Standard for Steel Pipe Fittings 
Marine standard 
GB/T10752-1995 marine steel pipe butt welding head 
CB/T3590-94 aluminum brass elbow 

Elbow manufacturing method

Hot push forming 

The hot push elbow forming process adopts a special elbow pushing machine, a core mold and a heating device, so that the blank sleeved on the mold moves forward under the push of the pusher, is heated, expanded, and bent in motion. the process of. The deformation characteristic of the hot push elbow is todetermine the diameter of the tube blank according to the law of the volume change before and after plastic deformation of the metal material. The diameter of the tube blank used is smaller than the diameter of the elbow, and the deformation process of the billet is controlled by the core mold to make the inner arc portion The flow of the compressed metal compensates for other parts that are thinned by the expansion of the diameter, thereby obtaining an elbow having a uniform wall thickness .

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The hot-bending elbow forming process has the characteristics of beautiful appearance, uniform wall thickness and continuous operation, and is suitable for mass production. Therefore, it is the main forming method for carbon steel and alloy steel elbows, and is also applied to some specifications of stainless steel elbows. Forming. 
The heating process of the forming process includes medium frequency or high frequency induction heating (the heating coil can be multi-turn or single turn), flame heating and reverberatory furnace heating, and the heating method is determined by the forming product requirements and energy conditions. 
Stamping 
Stamping forming elbow is the earliest forming process for mass production of seamless elbows. It has been replaced by hot pushing or other forming processes in the production of elbows of common specifications, but in some specifications of elbows due to the number of production Less, the wall thickness is too thick or too thin. 
The product is still in use when it has special requirements. The stamping of the elbow is performed by using a tube blank equal to the outer diameter of the elbow, and is directly press-formed in the mold using a press. 
Before the stamping, the tube blank is placed on the lower mold, the inner core and the end mold are loaded into the tube blank, the upper mold is moved downward to start pressing, and the elbow is formed by the constraint of the outer mold and the support of the inner mold. 
Compared with the hot push process, the appearance quality of stamping is not as good as that of the former; when the stamping elbow is formed, the outer arc is in a stretched state, and no other parts of the metal are compensated, so the wall thickness at the outer arc is about 10% thinner. . However, due tothe characteristics of single-piece production and low cost , the stamping elbow process is mostly used for the manufacture of small batches and thick-walled elbows. 
Stamping elbows are divided into cold stamping and hot stamping. Cold stamping or hot stamping is usually selected according to material properties and equipment capabilities. 
The forming process of the cold extrusion elbow is to use a special elbow forming machine to put the tube blank into the outer mold. After the upper and lower molds are closed, the blank is reserved along the inner and outer molds under the push of the push rod. The gap moves to complete the forming process. 
The elbow manufactured by the inner and outer mold cold extrusion process has beautiful appearance, uniform wall thickness and small dimensional deviation, so the stainless steel elbow, especially the thin-walled stainless steel elbow forming, is mostly manufactured by this process. The precision of the inner and outer molds used in this process is high; the wall thickness deviation of the tube blank is also demanding. 
Medium plate welding 
Use a medium plate press to make half of the elbow profile and then weld the two sections together. Such a process is generally used for elbows above DN700. 

Seamless elbow

A seamless elbow is a type of pipe used for turning a pipe. Among all the pipe fittings used in the pipeline system, the proportion is the largest, about 80%. Generally, different forming processes are selected for elbows of different material wall thicknesses. Currently. The seamless elbow forming processcommonly used in manufacturing plants has hot push, stamping, extrusion and the like. 
The raw material for rolling seamless elbow pipe fittings is a round tube blank, which is cut by a cutting machine into a billet having a length of about one meter and sent to a furnace for heating via a conveyor belt. The billet is fed into a furnace and heated to a temperature of approximately 1200 degrees Celsius. The fuel is hydrogen or acetylene . Furnace temperature control is a key issue. After the round billet is released, it is subjected to a through-hole punching machine. The more common perforating machine is a conical roller punching machine. This perforating machine has high production efficiency, good product quality, large diameter of perforation and can wear a variety of pipe fittings. After perforation , the round billet is successively rolled, rolled or extruded by three rolls. After extrusion, the tube should be sizing. The sizing machine is rotated at a high speed by a conical drill bit into a steel core to form a pipe. 
Seamless elbow forming method 

  1. Forging method: The end or part of the pipe is punched by a swaging machine to reduce the outer diameter. Commonly used forging machines are rotary, link type, and roller type.
  2. Rolling method: Generally, the mandrel is not used, and it is suitable for the inner edge of the thick-walled tube. The core is placed in the tube, and the outer circumference is pressed by a roller for round edge processing.
  3. Stamping: The tube ends are expanded to the required size and shape with a tapered core on the press.
  4. Bending forming method: There are three methods that are more commonly used. One method is called stretching method, the other method is called pressing method, the third method is roller method, there are 3-4 rollers, two fixed rollers, one adjusting roller, and adjusting fixed roller. The finished pipe fittings are curved.
  5. Inflating method: one is to place rubber in the tube, and the upper part is compressed by a punch to make the tube convexly formed; the other method is to form a hydraulic bulge, fill the middle of the tube with liquid, and the liquid pressure drums the tube into a desired shape. Most of the production of bellows is used in this way.

Seamless elbow making process
Seamless elbows do not cause corrosion, pitting, rust or wear. Stainless steel or construction gold 
One of the most intensive materials in the material. Because stainless steel has good corrosion resistance, it enables structural components to permanently maintain engineering integrity. The raw material for rolling seamless elbow pipe fittings is a round tube blank, which is cut into a billet having a length of about one meter by a cutting machine , and sent to a furnace for heating via a conveyor belt. The billet is sent to the furnace for heating. The temperature is about 1200 ° C. The temperature control in the furnace is a key issue. After the round billet is discharged, it is subjected to a pressure puncher to go through the air. The fuel is hydrogen or acetylene. 
Generally, the more common punching machine is a conical roller punching machine. This perforating machine has high production efficiency, good product quality, large diameter of perforation, and can wear a variety of pipe fittings. After perforation, the round billet is successively rolled by three rolls. , continuous rolling or extrusion. After extrusion, the pipe is to be sizing. The sizing machine is rotated at a high speed by a conical drill bit into the steel core to form a pipe. 
Summary of the advantages of seamless elbow 
Seamless elbow has the following advantages: hygienic non-toxic, light weight, good heat resistance, good corrosion resistance, good heat preservation, good impact resistance and long service life. 

  1. Hygienic and non-toxic: The material consists entirely of carbon and hydrogen. No toxic heavy metal salt stabilizer has been added. The hygienic properties of the material have been tested by the national authorities.
  2. Light weight: The punching elbow density is 0.89-0.91g/cm, which is only one tenth of the steel pipe. Due to its light weight, it can greatly reduce the transportation cost and the construction strength of the installation.
  3. Good heat resistance: When the working water temperature is 70 degrees, the softening temperature is 140 degrees.
  4. Good corrosion resistance: in addition to a few hydrogenating agents, it can withstand the erosion of a variety of chemical media, has excellent acid, alkali, corrosion resistance, no rust, no corrosion, no bacteria, no electrochemical corrosion .
  5. High impact: Because the unique impact strength performance is significantly improved compared to other solid wall tubes, the ring stiffness is equivalent to 1.3 times the solid wall.
  6. Long service life: The pipe has a service life of more than 50 years under the rated service temperature and pressure. It has anti-UV and anti-radiation products, so that the product will never fade.

Welding elbow

Welded elbow, which is welded after cutting and cutting on the steel plate, and its specifications can be very large. The number of bends and the bend radius are freely determined by the producer. The welding bend is not very round, and the bending radius of both is not large, generally about 1 times the diameter of the pipe.

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Welding elbow production process 
If you are making a long radius elbow, you must first select the specifications and propose the pipe material. The expansion rate, through theoretical calculations, is generally between 33% and 35%, and is pushed back. The general diameter expansion rate of short radius 219mm is 50%. After selecting the raw materials, the material is cut according to the elbow specification, and then the radius of curvature isconsidered . For example, the 90° elbow can be calculated by the curvature of the long material. 90° elbow. It can be calculated by theoretical calculation, and then cut with the length as a fixed length.Finally, the material is hot pushed. The pusher may have been seen by everyone, and the actual situation is very simple. It is a horn-shaped core or mandrel. The mandrel is thickened and thinned. The pushing process is a process of bending the expanding belt. There is support at the back, the cutting pipe section is inserted into the mandrel, and a rear frame is used to fix the mandrel. There is a small car in the middle, some of the cars are driven by hydraulic pressure , some are driven by mechanical transmission, that is, screw drive, and then push the trolley forward. The trolley pushes the tube forward along the mandrel. There is an induction coil outside the mandrel. The tube is heated and heated. Then the trolley pushes the tube down and processes one. After the push, the elbow should be shaped in this hot state. Because some elbows are handled improperly, they will be distorted, which is not allowed.In addition, after the head is pushed, the outer diameter of the front end is generally large, and it is shaped by a shaping die. The shaping die is actually a press. It must have a set of molds, two semi-circular arcs, one on each side. The outer diameter after shaping has reached the size requirement of the finished product. The wall thickness is controlled by the wall thickness of the material. The wall thickness tolerances of the elbow and the pipe are the same, both are ±12.5%. In the process of pushing, the wall thickness should not change under normal conditions , but if it is due to tools, some places will have wall reduction. Therefore, when the material is generally raised, the wall thickness should be increased by some margin. For example, the elbow is 8.18 mm, and the pipe is generally about 8.5 mm to prevent the difference in the pushing due to local thickness reduction. 
After the shape is good, the outer diameter and wall thickness of the elbow have reached the requirements. Next, the finishing process is carried out, and after the shot peening, the scale of the inner and outer surfaces of the elbow is removed, and both ends are treated with a groove to facilitate welding. After inspection, steel printing , painting, packaging and other processes, you can leave the factory. The above is a production method of elbows with a seamless steel pipe as a raw material below 24 inches. After more than 24 inches, that is, 600 mm or more, the maximum elbow is between 2.032 m and 2.80 m, which is made of steel plate. After the steel sheet is cut into the required material , it is shaped like UOE, and is punched into a circular shape by punching. There are two halves and then put together and welded. Due to the presence of welds, non-destructive testing is required. Heat treatment is also required due to the presence of welding stress. There are two more steps in welding elbows: one is flaw detection and the other is heat treatment. The other programs are the same. 

Socket elbow

The socket elbow is mainly a high-pressure elbow pipe connection fitting which is formed by forming a round forged steel or steel ingot and then forming it by a lathe machine. It is a kind of forged socket series pipe fittings.

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Common standard for socket elbow 
Standards for socket elbows are GB/T14383-93, GB/T14383-2008, American standard ASME B16.11, petrochemical standard SH3410, Ministry of Chemical Industry standard HG/T21634, etc. 
Specification form of socket elbow 
Divided into 45° socket elbows and 90° socket elbows according to form 
According to the common standards, the specifications of socket elbows are DN6, DN8, DN10, DN15, DN20, DN25, DN32, DN40, DN50, DN65, DN80, DN100. The commonly used order specification is DN15—-DN50. If there is any scope beyond the scope of this specification , you can communicate with the customer to design and process the drawings. 
Pressure level of socket elbow 
According to the pressure level: 3000LB, 6000LB, 9000LB or SCH80, SCH160, XXS 
Common manufacturing materials for socket elbows 
The commonly used raw materials for socket pipe fittings are generally divided into carbon steel, stainless steel and alloy steel. 
Commonly used carbon steel grades are Q235, 20#, A105, etc.; 
Commonly used grades of stainless steel are 304, 304L, 316, 316L, 321, 00Cr17Ni14Mo2, etc.; 
Commonly used alloy materials are 15CrMo, 1Cr5Mo, 16Mn, 12Cr1MoV, F11, F22, 10CrMo910, etc. 
Other materials: copper alloy, nickel alloy, etc. 
Application field of socket elbow 
It is mainly used in sectors and fields such as petrochemical, medical and health, electric power, aerospace, military, fire, metallurgy, shipbuilding, gas, nuclear power, and environmental protection, which are subject to high pressure and precision. 
Precautions for the use of socket elbow 
There are two types of sockets for socket fittings, namely A series (I series) take-up size and B series (II series) take-over size or English take-over (ie A-series size) and metric take-over (ie B-series size). . In addition, some standards directly stipulate that the take-up size is A series. These standards include ASME B16.11 and SH3410 standards. Some standard sizes are available. When manufacturing and processing, the size of the take-over needs to be implemented. These standards include GB/T14383-2008, GB/T14383-93, HG21634, etc. If the user does not provide which type of take-over is selected , the default is For the A series. However, the standard to be noted here is the HG21634 standard. If it is given that the take-over is A, the B-series take-over size should be used. 

Reducing elbow

The function of the different diameter elbow is to change the diameter of the pipe when making a 90 degree turn. The effect is the same as the size of the head, but the size of the head can not be used for steering. The price is about twice as high as the elbow of equal diameter. At some construction sites, an elbow and a large head are welded together to replace this product. 
Manufacturing process of different diameter elbow 
Mainly in the following aspects: 

  1. The elbow blank is required as a raw material, which can save the cost of the mold, and can also obtain an elbow of any caliber.
  2. The blank is an elbow blank, so the workmanship is simple, the precision is easy to ensure, and the assembly and welding are convenient.
  3. Due to the above two reasons, the manufacturing cycle can be shortened and the production cost is greatly reduced.

Long radius elbows & short radius elbows

Elbows are split into two groups which define the distance over which they change direction; the center line of one end to the opposite face. This is known as the “center to face” distance and is equivalent to the radius through which the elbow is bent.

Here below, for example, you will find the center to face distance of NPS 2 elbows (the A distance on the image)

  •  90°-LR : = 1½ x 2(NPS) x 25.4 A=76.2 mm
  •  180°-LR : = 2 times the 90° LR elbow A=152.4 mm
  • 90°-SR : = 2(NPS) x 25.4 A=50.8 mm
  • 180°-SR : = 2 times the 90° SR elbow A=101.6 mm

The center to face distance for a “long” radius elbow, abbreviated LR always is “1½ x Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) (1½D)”, while the center to face distance for a “short” radius elbow, abbreviated SR even is to nominal pipe size.

bw elbows1 - What is an elbow?

3D elbows as an example, are calculated with: 
3(D) x 2(NPS) x 25.4

Note:

  • 90 Degree Elbow – where change in direction required is 90°
  • 45 Degree Elbow – where change in direction required is 45°
  • L/R – Long radius, S/R – Short radius
Nominal pipe size Outside Diameter 
at Bevel 
Center to End Center to Center Back to Faces
45° Elbows 90°Elbows 180°Return
H
        F
       P
       K

DN

INCH

Series A Series B LR LR SR LR
SR
LR
SR
15
1/2
21.3
18
16
38
76
48
20
3/4
26.9
25
16
38
76
51
25
1
33.7
32
16
38
25
76
51
56
41
32
11/4
42.4
38
20
48
32
95
64
70
52
40
11/2
48.3
45
24
57
38
114
76
83
62
50
2
60.3
57
32
76
51
152
102
106
81
65
21/2
76.1(73)
76
40
95
64
191
127
132
100
80
3
88.9
89
47
114
76
229
152
159
121
90
31/2
101.6
55
133
89
267
178
184
140
100
4
114.3
108
63
152
102
305
203
210
159
125
5
139.7
133
79
190
127
381
254
262
197
150
6
168.3
159
95
229
152
457
305
313
237
200
8
219.1
219
126
305
203
610
406
414
313
250
10
273.0
273
158
381
254
762
508
518
391
300
12
323.9
325
189
457
305
914
610
619
467
350
14
355.6
377
221
533
356
1067
711
711
533
400
16
406.4
426
253
610
406
1219
813
813
610
450
18
457.2
478
284
686
457
1372
914
914
686
500
20
508.0
529
316
762
508
1524
1016
1016
762
550
22
559
347
838
559
600
24
610
630
379
914
610
650
26
660
410
991
660
700
28
711
720
442
1067
711
750
30
762
473
1143
762
800
32
813
820
505
1219
813
850
34
864
537
1295
864
900
36
914
920
568
1372
914
950
38
965
600
1448
965
1000
40
1016
1020
631
1524
1016
1050
42
1067
663
1600
1067
1100
44
1118
1120
694
1676
1118
1150
46
1168
726
1753
1168
1200
48
1220
1220
758
1829
1219

Note:

1. Do not use the figures in the parenthesis as far as possible
2. Please first select A series.

Weight of elbows

NPS
inches
ELBOWS
LR 90°
ELBOWS
SR 90°
Sch.
5S
Sch.
10S
Sch.
40S
Sch.
80S
Sch.
5S
Sch.
10S
Sch.
40S
Sch.
80S
1/2 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07
3/4 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
1 0.09 0.15 0.18 0.20 0.06 0.10 0.12 0.13
1 1/4 0.13 0.20 0.25 0.35 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.12
1 1/2 0.18 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.12 0.20 0.27 0.33
2 0.30 0.50 0.70 0.90 0.20 0.33 0.47 0.60
2 1/2 0.60 0.85 1.35 1.80 0.40 0.60 0.90 1.20
3 0.90 1.30 2.00 2.90 0.60 0.90 1.35 1.90
4 1.40 2.00 4.00 5.90 0.90 1.35 2.65 3.90
5 2.90 3.60 6.50 9.70 1.95 2.40 4.35 6.50
6 4.00 5.00 10.5 16.0 2.70 3.35 7.00 10.5
8 7.40 10.0 21.5 33.5 4.90 6.70 14.5 22.5
10 13.6 16.8 38.5 52.5 9.10 11.2 25.6 35.0
12 23.4 27.0 59.0 79.0 15.6 18.0 39.5 53.0
14 29.0 35.0 70.0 94.0 19.3 23.5 47.0 63.0
16 41.3 47.0 95.0 125 27.5 31.5 63.5 84.0
18 51.8 59.0 120 158 34.5 39.5 80.0 105
20 73.0 85.0 146 194 49.0 57.0 98.0 129
24 122 140 210 282 82.0 94.0 140 188
Approximate weights in kg, density 8 kg/dm3

Angularity Tolerances 

ND Max off angle Max off plane
Q P
1/2 a 4 1 2
5 a 8 2 4
10 a 12 3 5
14 a 16 3 7
18 a 24 4 10
26 a 30 5 10
32 a 42 5 13
44 a 48 5 20

Application of pipe elbows:

Petroleum, chemical, power, gas, metallurgy, shipbuilding, construction, etc.

Wall Thickness of Elbows

The weakest point on an elbow is the inside radius. ASME B16.9 only standardizes the center to face dimensions and some “squareness” dimensional tolerances. The wall thickness at the weld line location even is standardized, but not through the rest of an elbow. The standard states that the minimum tolerance will be within 12.5% of the minimum ordered wall thickness of the pipe. A maximum tolerance is specified only at the ends of the fitting.

Source: China Elbow Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.metallicsteel.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at sales@metallicsteel.com

Please notice that you might be interested in the other technical articles we’ve published:

  • What is a stainless steel elbow

  • Life Prediction for Stress Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel Elbow of Nuclear Power Plant

  • WHERE TO BUY HIGH QUALITY PIPE FITTINGS

  • Difference Between Pipe Elbow And Pipe Bend

  • Where to get high quality pipe bend

References:

  • https://www.yaang.com/what-are-pipe-elbows.html

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