Típus: F321 Forged Cylinder Material: Grade F321 (Type 321/UNS S32100/W.Nr. 2.4819) Size: OD: 202 mm ID: 112 mm Length: 350 mm Standard: SA-965/SA-965M – Specification for Steel Forgings, Austenitic, for Pressure and High Temperature Parts
F321 (UNS S32100) is a titanium-containing austenitic stainless steel with good general corrosion resistance. The addition of titanium reduces and prevents carbide precipitation during the welding process. It has good resistance to intergranular corrosion at chromium carbide precipitation temperatures of 800-1500°F (427-816°C). F321 (UNS S32100) resists oxidation at 1500°F (816°C) and has higher creep and stress fracture properties than 304 and 304L alloys. It also has good low-temperature toughness. Alloy 321H (UNS S32109) is this alloy’s high carbon (0.04-0.10) version. It was developed for enhanced creep resistance and higher strength at temperatures above 1000°F (537°C). The nameplate can be double-certified in most cases. 321 alloy cannot be hardened by heat treatment, only by cold working. It can be easily welded and machined by standard shop fabrication practices.
Corrosion resistance of F321 (UNS S32100)
Alloy 321 exhibits good general corrosion resistance comparable to that of 304. It was developed for use in the chromium carbide precipitation range of 1800-1500°F (427-816°C), where unstabilized alloys such as 304 are subject to intergranular erosion.
The alloy can be used at moderate
temperatures for most dilute organic acids, lower temperatures for pure phosphoric acid, and higher temperatures for dilute solutions up to 10%. 321 alloy resists polysulfate stress corrosion cracking in a hydrocarbon environment. It can also be used in chloride or fluoride-free caustic solutions at moderate temperatures.
Alloy 321 functions poorly in chloride solutions, even at small concentrations or in sulfuric acid environments.
Forging of F321 (UNS S32100)
Hot Forming Recommended working temperatures for forging, upsetting, and other hot working processes are 2100-2300°F (1149-1260°C). Do not use this alloy at temperatures below 1700°F (927°C). Material must be water quenched or fully annealed after machining to regain maximum corrosion resistance. Cold Forming This alloy is very ductile and can be easily formed.
Solid solution treatment (annealing) – Heat to 950-1120°C and cool rapidly for maximum corrosion resistance. Stabilization – Heat to 870-900°C for 1 hour per 25 mm thickness, then air cool. Stabilization is recommended for the most severe service conditions (above 425°C), especially for materials annealed on the upper side of the annealing temperature range. Stress Relief – Heat to 700°C for 1 to 2 hours, then air cool. These grades cannot be hardened by heat treatment.
Machining of F321 (UNS S32100)
The cold work hardening rate of 321 makes it less machinable than 410 stainless steel, but similar to 304. The following table provides relevant machining data.
39 – 52
High Speed Steel
18 – 23
23 – 28
75 – 92
Dry or Cutting Oil
220 – 249
266 – 295
325 – 354
Depth of cut-m
Depth of cut-in
High Speed Steel
16 – 21
52 – 69
18 – 23
Drill 0 mm
Drill 0 in
29 – 42
High Speed Steel
36 – 49
36 – 49
36 – 49
High Speed Steel
36 – 69
Weldability of F321 (UNS S32100)
Excellent weldability by all standard fusion methods, both with and without filler metals. AS 1554.6 pre-qualifies welding of 321 and 347 with Grade 347 rods or electrodes; a high silicon version of 347 is also pre-qualified for welding of 321.
Typical problems associated with metal rings can frequently be traced to the metal-forming process. Cast rings are often plagued with substandard strength and integrity. Rolled and welded or cut rings out from plate are susceptible to fatigue and carry excess material and processing costs. A forged cylinder is a crucial component of heavy machinery, and its understanding requires a comprehensive dive into the manufacturing sector. Essentially, a forged cylinder is made from metal that undergoes the forging process, which includes heating, molding, and shaping the metal into a cylindrical shape. This unique process yields highly durable and reliable cylinders, optimal for high-stress applications.
Forged Cylinder Advantages
Unparalleled Strength and Durability One of the most significant advantages of forged cylinders is their exceptional strength and durability. This is because the forging process aligns the grain structure of the metal along the shape of the cylinder, increasing its overall tensile strength. As a result, these cylinders are far more resistant to fatigue and wear, providing long-lasting service even under the most demanding conditions. Superior Structural Integrity The structural integrity of forged cylinders is another compelling advantage. The forging process eliminates internal voids and pockets that could weaken the metal. Thus, unlike other manufacturing methods, forging produces cylinders with a seamless structure, which ensures they can withstand high pressure and heavy loads without compromising their structure. Exceptional Resistance to Heat and Corrosion Forged cylinders stand out for their incredible resistance to heat and corrosion. Due to the high heat involved in the forging process, the produced cylinders exhibit a high level of heat tolerance. They also showcase superior corrosion resistance, largely due to the uniformity of the metal’s composition throughout the cylinder. This characteristic ensures the long-term usability of the cylinders, even in harsh environmental conditions. Customizability: Meeting Specific Needs The forging process provides flexibility in terms of customizing the product. Forged cylinders can be tailored to meet specific dimensions, shapes, and strength requirements, making them versatile across many applications and industries. This adaptability can save businesses significant amounts of time and money that might be spent accommodating cylinders of lesser customization options. Cost-Effectiveness: An Economical Choice While the initial cost of forged cylinders may seem high, they are an economical choice considering the long-term benefits. Their exceptional durability, strength, and heat and corrosion resistance significantly reduce the need for replacements and repairs. Consequently, businesses can expect lower maintenance costs and longer service life from these high-quality components, resulting in a more economical solution in the long run. Increased Safety Safety is a paramount consideration in any industrial setting. The high structural integrity of forged cylinders and their exceptional strength means they are less likely to fail under heavy load or high pressure. This reliability translates into a safer working environment and minimizes the risk of catastrophic failure that could lead to costly damage or injuries. Environmentally Friendly Manufacturing Lastly, forging is an environmentally friendly process. It uses less energy and produces fewer emissions compared to other manufacturing methods. As a result, choosing forged cylinders aligns with the growing need for eco-friendly practices and sustainable industrial operations. In conclusion, forged cylinders offer numerous benefits, including superior strength and durability, exceptional resistance to heat and corrosion, customizability, cost-effectiveness, increased safety, and an environmentally friendly manufacturing process. Their advantages make them a preferred choice in numerous industrial applications.
Production technology of forged cylinder
Before delving into the specifics of the cylinder forging process, it’s essential to comprehend the fundamentals of forging. This manufacturing process manipulates metal into a desired, pre-determined shape using localized compressive forces. The result is a stronger, more robust product than what most other metalworking processes can
Diving into the Production Technology of Forged Cylinder
The production technology of a forged cylinder is a multi-faceted process. Let’s walk through the steps:
Choosing the right material forms the initial and most crucial step in the production technology of a forged cylinder. Generally, alloy steels, carbon steels, stainless steels, and superalloys are utilized, depending on the desired attributes of the final product.
Post material selection, the raw metal is heated until it reaches a temperature conducive to forging. This process must be carefully controlled to prevent the weakening or burning of the metal.
Next, the heated metal is placed under a hydraulic press or hammer, where it’s shaped into a cylindrical form through a series of compressive blows.
Once the desired shape has been achieved, the forged cylinder undergoes heat treatment. This process involves cooling and heating the metal to enhance its mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and resistance to wear and tear.
The final stage in the production
technology of a forged cylinder involves finishing. This process ensures that the cylinder meets the required specifications, including accurate dimensions and a smooth, polished surface.
Benefits of Using Forged Cylinder
Forged cylinders manufactured through the above process come with a slew of benefits:
Superior Strength: Forged cylinders are stronger and more durable than cast or machined counterparts.
High Fatigue Resistance: Forging improves the metal’s fatigue resistance, which is crucial for cylinders employed in high-stress applications.
Cost-effectiveness: Despite an upfront cost, the longevity and low maintenance needs of forged cylinders offer substantial cost savings in the long run.
Versatility: The forging process allows for a wide range of sizes and shapes, meeting diverse industry needs.
The production technology of forged cylinder is an intricate, refined procedure that stands as a testament to the marvels of modern manufacturing. This comprehensive understanding of the process, from material selection to finishing, empowers us to appreciate the resulting product’s quality, strength, and versatility.
ASTM A965 Supplementary Requirements
In metallurgical manufacturing, understanding the various standards and their requirements is vital. ASTM A965 is one such crucial standard that requires our attention. Its wide-ranging supplementary requirements delineate critical quality characteristics for forging products. Let’s delve deeper into its major elements. Rough Turning and Boring The rough turning and boring process constitutes the initial shaping stage of ASTM A965. This ensures the removal of any surface imperfections, hence the use of “Rough Turning.” The “Boring” stage guarantees the creation of an internal void or cavity in the workpiece. The objective is to achieve a consistent and exact shape that conforms to the dimensions specified in the ASTM A965 guidelines. Transverse Tension Test Next, we focus on the Transverse Tension Test. This test ensures the material’s resilience under transverse loading and helps determine the material’s quality and integrity. The transverse tension test involves applying a load at a right angle to the material’s grain structure. This evaluation is pivotal in understanding the structural integrity of the forged product under real-world conditions. Hydrostatic Test The Hydrostatic Test is another fundamental part of ASTM A965 supplementary requirements. The test checks the material’s leakage resistance by pressurizing it with a liquid, typically water. This non-destructive test helps verify the material’s integrity and ability to withstand pressure when used in high-pressure applications. Stabilization Heat Treatment The stabilization heat treatment is another pivotal component of ASTM A965. This process involves heating the metal to a certain temperature and cooling it slowly. The purpose of the Stabilization Heat Treatment is to reduce the internal stresses within the material. It also helps to improve the metal’s mechanical properties and dimensional stability, thereby enhancing its service life. Marking Post-production, each ASTM A965 product must bear a distinct Marking. This identification mark usually includes the manufacturer’s identification, the heat number, and the grade designation. The marking ensures the traceability and reliability of the product, aligning with the ethos of transparency and quality assurance that ASTM standards endorse. Individual Forging Individual Forging is the manufacturing process that shapes a metal piece using localized compressive forces. The forces applied could be manually driven (hammer and anvil) or powered by machinery. The ASTM A965 standard specifies that each forging must undergo individual inspection to ensure it meets the quality parameters. Grain Size Requirements for Service Exceeding 1000°F [540°C] Regarding service temperatures exceeding 1000°F [540°C], the Grain Size Requirements become significant. The grain size of the metal can impact its mechanical properties, such as strength, ductility, and hardness. ASTM A965 provides clear specifications regarding the acceptable grain size for metals operating under high-temperature conditions. Ultrasonic Inspection Lastly, the Ultrasonic Inspection is an essential aspect of the ASTM A965 standard. This non-destructive testing method uses high-frequency sound waves to detect internal and surface defects in the material. The test provides valuable insights into the material’s quality and suitability for its intended application. The ASTM A965 supplementary requirements guide the manufacturing process to ensure the highest quality of forged products. Each step plays a vital role in maintaining the structural integrity and serviceability of the metals involved.
Yaang Forge Difference
At Yaang, we know the importance of getting your parts on-time, as expected. However, for customers new to procuring forgings, ordering a forging that will meet all specifications for end-use applications may be a challenge, which is why finding a trusted supplier and partner is essential. Our employee-owners are here to ensure your project stays on track with our forgings by offering:
Forge Design & Engineering Guidance
Finished Machining Options
Metallurgical Review, NDE & Destructive Testing
We offer many size forgings in both standard and unique geometries to meet your needs.
Step Shafts, Eccentric Shafts & Rotor Shafts
Hubs & Tooled Forgings
Forged & Rolled Rings
Discs & Blanks
Kapcsolódó termékek SA-965 Grade F321 nem szabványos kovácsolt henger Φ202/Φ112 X Φ350MM