Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825) is an austenitic nickel iron chromium molybdenum copper alloy that contains high levels of chromium, nickel, copper, and molybdenum, providing high levels of corrosion resistance for moderate oxidation and moderate reduction environments. As an austenitic nickel-based alloy, this material exhibits ductility over a wide temperature range, with processability ranging from low temperatures to over 1000 ° F (538 ° C), making it a typical nickel-based alloy that is easy to form and weld through various technologies. Compared to standard stainless steel, the high nickel content in the alloy, combined with the content of molybdenum
and copper, produces significantly improved corrosion resistance in reducing environments.
Corrosion resistance of Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825)
The outstanding feature of Incoloy 825 alloy is its high level of corrosion resistance. In the environment of reduction and oxidation, the alloy can resist general corrosion, pitting, Crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking.
Incoloy 825 alloy is particularly suitable for some environments, including sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfur-containing flue gas, sulfur-containing gases, oil wells, and seawater.
Spot corrosion resistance
The chromium and molybdenum components of 825 alloy provide extremely high resistance to chloride pitting corrosion.
Therefore, this material can be used in high-concentration chloride environments, such as seawater, and is mainly used for resistance to point corrosion. Compared with ordinary stainless steel such as 316L, 825 alloy has better corrosion resistance. However, the corrosion resistance 825 in seawater applications is not as good as that of 6Mo (UNS N08367) and 625 (UNS N06625).
Forging of Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825)
Incoloy 825 is forged at 983 to 1094°C (1800 to 2000°F).
The Hot working range of Incoloy 825 alloy is 1600 to 2150 degrees Fahrenheit (870 to 1180 degrees Celsius). For optimum corrosion resistance, final Hot working should be performed at 1600 to 1800 °F (870 to 980 °C). The cooling after Hot working should be air cooling or faster.
It will be heated at the working temperature so that it will be subject to intergranular corrosion of some media. Stable annealing to restore corrosion resistance. If the material is to be welded or heat treated and then exposed to the outside, the annealing temperature should be stable, regardless of cooling in an environment that may cause intergranular corrosion.
The cold forming performance and practice of Incoloy 825 alloy are the same as INCONEL alloy 600. Although the hardening work rate is slightly lower than that of ordinary grade austenitic stainless steel, relatively low and high forming equipment should have good power and a sturdy structure to compensate for the increase in yield strength and plastic deformation.
Incoloy alloy 825 is heat treated by annealing at 930–980 °C (1706–1796°F) followed by quenching in water.
Machining of Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825)
As with other nickel-based alloys, machining Incoloy 825 requires adjustments to tool data and machining methods to obtain satisfactory results.
The table below shows the range of cutting data you can select to obtain 7 minutes of tool life in Incoloy 825. For long continuous cuts, the cutting speed should be reduced slightly.
Recommended Inserts and Cutting Data for Incoloy 825 Turning.
Cutting data Feed
Finishing, copy turning
Weldability of Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825)
Incoloy 825 is rich in chromium, molybdenum, and copper. Therefore, it has good corrosion resistance to oxidizing and nonoxidizing acids. Especially for sulfuric acid, it has extremely high corrosion resistance. Due to the high content of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel, it has excellent pitting corrosion resistance, Crevice corrosion resistance, and stress corrosion cracking resistance in a chloride environment. Incoloy 825 alloy controls carbon content at a very low level, making it less susceptible to sensitization during welding and less sensitive to intergranular corrosion.
Incoloy 825 is suitable for welding with the same material or other metals using any traditional welding process, such as tungsten inert gas welding, plasma arc welding, manual argon arc welding, metal inert gas welding, and MIG welding. Pulse Arc welding is the preferred solution. When using manual argon arc welding, it is recommended to use a shielding gas mixed with multiple components (Ar+He+H2+CO2).
The welding of Incoloy 825 must be carried out in the annealed state and cleaned of stains, dust, and various marks using a stainless steel wire brush. When welding at the root of the weld seam, the operation must be very careful to obtain the best quality of the root weld seam (argon 99.99) so that the weld seam does not produce oxides after the root welding is completed. The color generated in the welding heat affected zone should be brushed off with a stainless steel brush before the weld area cools down.
Kemisk sammensætning - Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825)
38 – 46
19.5 – 23.5
2.5 – 3.5
1.5 – 3
0.6 – 1.2
Mechanical Properties – Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825)
The mechanical properties of Incoloy(r) alloy 825 are highlighted in the following table.
Tensile strength (annealed)
Yield strength (annealed)
Elongation at break (annealed prior to test)
Physical Properties – Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825)
The physical properties of Incoloy(r) alloy 825 are given in the following table.
Typical problems associated with metal rings can frequently be traced to the metal-forming process. Cast rings are often plagued with substandard strength and integrity. Rolled and welded or cut rings out from plate are susceptible to fatigue and carry excess material and processing costs. A forged cylinder is a crucial component of heavy machinery, and its understanding requires a comprehensive dive into the manufacturing sector. Essentially, a forged cylinder is made from metal that undergoes the forging process, which includes heating, molding, and shaping the metal into a cylindrical shape. This unique process yields highly durable and reliable cylinders, optimal for high-stress applications.
Forged Cylinder Advantages
Unparalleled Strength and Durability One of the most significant advantages of forged cylinders is their exceptional strength and durability. This is because the forging process aligns the grain structure of the metal along the shape of the cylinder, increasing its overall tensile strength. As a result, these cylinders are far more resistant to fatigue and wear, providing long-lasting service even under the most demanding conditions. Superior Structural Integrity The structural integrity of forged cylinders is another compelling advantage. The forging process eliminates internal voids and pockets that could weaken the metal. Thus, unlike other manufacturing methods, forging produces cylinders with a seamless structure, which ensures they can withstand high pressure and heavy loads without compromising their structure. Exceptional Resistance to Heat and Corrosion Forged cylinders stand out for their incredible resistance to heat and corrosion. Due to the high heat involved in the forging process, the produced cylinders exhibit a high level of heat tolerance. They also showcase superior corrosion resistance, largely due to the uniformity of the metal’s composition throughout the cylinder. This characteristic ensures the long-term usability of the cylinders, even in harsh environmental conditions. Customizability: Meeting Specific Needs The forging process provides flexibility in terms of customizing the product. Forged cylinders can be tailored to meet specific dimensions, shapes, and strength requirements, making them versatile across many applications and industries. This adaptability can save businesses significant amounts of time and money that might be spent accommodating cylinders of lesser customization options. Cost-Effectiveness: An Economical Choice While the initial cost of forged cylinders may seem high, they are an economical choice considering the long-term benefits. Their exceptional durability, strength, and heat and corrosion resistance significantly reduce the need for replacements and repairs. Consequently, businesses can expect lower maintenance costs and longer service life from these high-quality components, resulting in a more economical solution in the long run. Increased Safety Safety is a paramount consideration in any industrial setting. The high structural integrity of forged cylinders and their exceptional strength means they are less likely to fail under heavy load or high pressure. This reliability translates into a safer working environment and minimizes the risk of catastrophic failure that could lead to costly damage or injuries. Environmentally Friendly Manufacturing Lastly, forging is an environmentally friendly process. It uses less energy and produces fewer emissions compared to other manufacturing methods. As a result, choosing forged cylinders aligns with the growing need for eco-friendly practices and sustainable industrial operations. In conclusion, forged cylinders offer numerous benefits, including superior strength and durability, exceptional resistance to heat and corrosion, customizability, cost-effectiveness, increased safety, and an environmentally friendly manufacturing process. Their advantages make them a preferred choice in numerous industrial applications.
Production technology of forged cylinder
Before delving into the specifics of the cylinder forging process, it’s essential to comprehend the fundamentals of forging. This manufacturing process manipulates metal into a desired, pre-determined shape using localized compressive forces. The result is a stronger, more robust product than what most other metalworking processes can yield.
Diving into the Production Technology of Forged Cylinder
The production technology of a forged cylinder is a multi-faceted process. Let’s walk through the steps:
Choosing the right material forms the initial and most crucial step in the production technology of a forged cylinder. Generally, alloy steels, carbon steels, stainless steels, and superalloys are utilized, depending on the desired attributes of the final product.
Post material selection, the raw metal is heated until it reaches a temperature conducive to forging. This process must be carefully controlled to prevent the weakening or burning of the metal.
Next, the heated metal is placed under a hydraulic press or hammer, where it’s shaped into a cylindrical form through a series of compressive blows.
Once the desired shape has been achieved, the forged cylinder undergoes heat treatment. This process involves cooling and heating the metal to enhance its mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and resistance to wear and tear.
The final stage in the production technology of a forged cylinder involves finishing. This process ensures that the cylinder meets the required specifications, including accurate dimensions and a smooth, polished surface.
Benefits of Using Forged Cylinder Production Technology
Forged cylinders manufactured through the above process come with a slew of benefits:
Superior Strength: Forged cylinders are stronger and more durable than cast or machined counterparts.
High Fatigue Resistance: Forging improves the metal’s fatigue resistance, which is crucial for cylinders employed in high-stress applications.
Cost-effectiveness: Despite an upfront cost, the longevity and low maintenance needs of forged cylinders offer substantial cost savings in the long run.
Versatility: The forging process allows for a wide range of sizes and shapes, meeting diverse industry needs.
The production technology of forged cylinder is an intricate, refined procedure that stands as a testament to the marvels of modern manufacturing. This comprehensive understanding of the process, from material selection to finishing, empowers us to appreciate the resulting product’s quality, strength, and versatility.
ASTM A965 Supplementary Requirements
ASME SB-564 is a pivotal specification in the manufacturing world. This standard pertains to nickel alloy forgings, providing specific guidelines to ensure the highest quality of materials. From rough turning and boring to individual forgings and ultrasonic inspections, these processes are meticulously overseen by this powerful standard.
Rough Turning and Boring: The Basics
The rough turning and boring process form the crux of ASME SB-564. This procedure involves the initial machining of nickel alloy forgings. Rough turning and boring primarily ensure that the forgings are precisely sized and shaped according to the required specifications. Through stringent dimensional controls and exacting tolerance levels, these steps ensure that the final products exhibit outstanding structural integrity and functionality.
Transverse Tension Test: Ensuring Strength
In the ASME SB-564, the transverse tension test plays a significant role. This test evaluates the tensile strength of nickel alloy forgings, providing a reliable indicator of the material’s resistance to breaking under tension. This vital test is carefully carried out by applying a force perpendicular to the grain direction until the sample breaks. The results comprehensively understand the material’s mechanical properties and resilience.
The Importance of Hydrostatic Testing
Hydrostatic testing is another crucial requirement in the ASME SB-564 standard. This non-destructive test method validates the integrity of the material and its ability to withstand operating pressures. By applying a specific level of pressure-filled with water or another incompressible fluid, any leaks, deformities, or weaknesses within the material can be identified and addressed before moving into the final production stage.
ASME SB-564 recognizes the importance of stabilization heat treatment. This procedure serves to improve the material’s mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. By exposing the forgings to a controlled high temperature, unwanted phases are dissolved, and the alloy’s microstructure is stabilized. This treatment significantly enhances the alloy’s durability and resistance to environmental stressors.
The Marking Requirement
To ensure traceability and identification, ASME SB-564 provides specific marking guidelines. Each nickel alloy forging is permanently marked with the material’s grade, heat number, and the manufacturer’s identification. This requirement ensures transparency and accountability in every phase of the production process.
Individual Forging: A Key Requirement
The standard necessitates the consideration of individual forgings. Each forging, irrespective of size, is treated as a separate entity, receiving unique treatment and testing. This step ensures that every piece meets the stringent requirements of ASME SB-564, reinforcing the overall quality and reliability of the final product.
Ultrasonic Inspection: Securing Flawless Quality
Lastly, the ASME SB-564 standard requires an ultrasonic inspection. This nondestructive testing method uses high-frequency sound waves to detect any internal or surface defects in the material. Ultrasonic inspection ensures that each forging is free from flaws that could compromise its integrity, contributing to the overall safety and performance of the final product.
Yaang Forge Difference
At Yaang, we know the importance of getting your parts on-time, as expected. However, for customers new to procuring forgings, ordering a forging that will meet all specifications for end-use applications may be a challenge, which is why finding a trusted supplier and partner is essential. Our employee-owners are here to ensure your project stays on track with our forgings by offering:
Forge Design & Engineering Guidance
Finished Machining Options
Metallurgical Review, NDE & Destructive Testing
We offer many size forgings in both standard and unique geometries to meet your needs.
Step Shafts, Eccentric Shafts & Rotor Shafts
Hubs & Tooled Forgings
Forged & Rolled Rings
Discs & Blanks
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Produkter relateret til ASME SB-564 W.Nr.2.4858 Smedet cylinder Φ121/Φ107 X Φ87MM