Grade 310S stainless steel is superior than 304 or 309 stainless steel in most environments, because it has high nickel and chromium content. It has high corrosion resistance and strength in temperatures up to 1149°C (2100°F). The following datasheet gives more details about grade 310S stainless steel.
Reducing elbow is a kind of pipe fitting that connects two different pipe diameters to do the steering. Stamping reduced diameter elbow, it is the use of the same material as the pipe sheet with stamping die stamping into a half annular elbow, and then the two half annular elbow group for welding forming. Due to the different welding standards of all kinds of pipelines, semi-finished products are usually delivered according to the group of fixed points, and welded in field construction according to the grade of pipeline weld. Therefore, it is also called two-half welding elbow. Purpose: Connecting two pipes with different diameters, making the pipe turn 90° while reducing the diameter. The production process adopted is to use the whole elbow drawing sliver shrinking process to produce. All it does is change the diameter of the pipe when making a 90 degree turn. It has the same function as the big and small heads, but the big and small heads cannot be used for steering. According to the process: hot push elbow, stamping elbow, welding elbow, etc. According to the material: carbon steel elbow, stainless steel elbow, alloy steel elbow, etc. According to the specifications: there are short radius elbow, long radius elbow, 30° 45° 60° 90° and other different degrees of elbow. Stamping reduced diameter elbow classification: According to the material is divided into: carbon steel elbow, stainless steel stamping reduced diameter elbow, alloy steel stamping reduced diameter elbow. According to the standard, it is divided into:
China standard: Stamping reducing elbow, non-standard;
International standard: German standard, Japanese standard, American standard, British standard stamping reduced diameter elbow. All it does is change the diameter of the pipe when making a 90 degree turn. It has the same function as the big and small heads, but the big and small heads cannot be used for steering. The price is about twice as high as the elbow of equal diameter. In some construction sites, an elbow and a small head are welded together instead of this product. Its material has carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy steel, titanium and titanium alloy, cast steel, etc.
Chemical composition % of grade 310 and 310S stainless steel
24.00 – 26.00
24.00 – 26.00
19.00 – 22.00
19.00 – 22.00
Mechanical properties of of grade 310/310S stainless steel
Grade 0.2 % Proof Stress MPa (min)
Tensile Strength MPa (min)
Elongation % (min)
Hardness (HV) (max)
Physical properties of grade 310/310S stainless steel
Modulus of Elasticity
Relative Magnetic Permeability
Coefficient of Expansion
Fabrication of Grade 310/310S Stainless Steel
Fabrication Grades 310/310S are forged in the temperature range 975 – 1175°C. Heavy work is carried out down to 1050°Cand a light ﬁnish is applied to the bottom of the range. After forging annealing is recommended to relieve all stresses from the forging process. The alloys can be readily cold formed by standard methods and equipment.
Machinability of Grade 310/310S Stainless Steel
Machinability Grades 310/310S are similar in machinability to type 304. Work hardening can be a problem and it is normal to remove the work hardened layer by using slow speeds and heavy cuts, with sharp tools and good lubrication. Powerful machines and heavy, rigid tools are used.
Welding of Grade 310/310S Stainless Steel
Welding Grades 310/310S are welded with matching electrodes and ﬁller metals. The alloys are readily welded by SMAW (manual), GMAW (MIG), GTAW (TIG) and SAW. Electrodes to AWS A5.4 E310-XX and A 5.22 E310T-X, and ﬁller metal AWS A5.9 ER310 are used. Argon is shielding gas. Preheat and post heat are not required, but for corrosion service in liquids full post weld solution annealing treatment is essential. Pickling and passivation of the surface to remove high temperature oxides are essential to restore full aqueous corrosion resistance after welding. This treatment is not required for high temperature service, but welding slag should be thoroughly removed.
Heat Treatment of Grade 310/310S Stainless Steel
Heat Treatment Type 310/310S are solution annealed by heating to temperature range 1040 -1065°C, holding at temperature until thoroughly soaked, then water quenching.
Heat Resistance of Grade 310/310S Stainless Steel
Grades 310/310S have good resistance to oxidation in intermittent service in air up to 1035°Cand 1050°Cin continuous service. The grades are resistant to oxidation, sulphidation and carburisation.
Available Forms of Grade 310/310S Stainless Steel
Austral Wright Metals can supply these grades as plate, sheet and strip, bar and rod, seamless tube and pipe, welded tube and pipe, forgings and forging billet, tube and pipe ﬁttings, wire. Corrosion Resistance Grade 310/310S is generally not used for corrosive liquid service, although the high chromium and nickel content give corrosion resistance superior to grade 304. The alloy does not contain molybdenum, so pitting resistance is quite poor. Grade 310/310S will be sensitised to intergranular corrosion after service at temperatures in range 550 – 800°C. Chloride stress corrosion cracking may take place in corrosive liquids containing chlorides at temperatures exceeding 100°C.
All dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise indicated.
Wall thickness (t) must be specified by customer.
Most elbows are available in short radius or long radius variants.
SHORT RADIUS ELBOWS
The short radius elbows have a center-to-end distance equal to the Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) in inches, while the long radius is 1.5 times the NPS in inches. Short elbows are widely available, and are typically used in pressurized systems.
LONG RADIUS ELBOWS
Long elbows are typically used in low-pressure gravity-fed systems and other applications where low turbulence and minimum deposition of entrained solids are of concern.
The biggest difference between seamless elbows and welded elbows is the presence or absence of welds, but many weld elbows are now polished from the weld before leaving the factory, and many exporters sell such fake seamless elbows to customers. Even if the weld is polished, experienced customers can still distinguish it with the naked eye: the thickness of the seamless elbow is not uniform with respect to the thickness of the weld elbow. Currently, the false seamless elbow often appears in the area below the diameter DN600.
Differences in molding process
The process of using seamless steel pipes and welded steel pipes is the same process. The difference is that the welding elbows are made of sheet steel, by bending and different welding processes.
Differences in performance and usage
The seamless steel pipe elbow has better pressure bearing capacity and higher strength than the welded steel elbow. Therefore, it is widely used in high-voltage equipment, heat, boilers and other industries. Generally, the weld of the welded steel elbow is a weak point, and the quality affects the overall performance. In general, welded steel elbows can reduce working pressure by 20% compared to seamless steel elbows. This reliability is the main reason why people choose seamless steel elbows. In fact, all industrial pipes are finished with seamless pipe elbows because the elbows are subjected to extreme thermal, chemical and mechanical loads. In the aerospace, automotive and electronics industries with relatively low budgets, welding elbows are more popular, as are the working pressures on the pipeline.
Differences in available sizes
For most seamless steel elbow manufacturers in China, they produce original seamless pipe elbows with a maximum outer diameter of 24 inches and 609.6 mm. In contrast, welded steel pipe elbows do not have these limitations and can range in size from 1-1 / 2 inch 48.3mm to 100 inch 2540mm.
Because the seamless manufacturing process is more complicated, the price is more expensive than the seamed elbow, and the seam is mainly made of steel plate (steel strip) for secondary welding, which is cheaper and more widely used.
Package of 90 Degree Reducing Elbow
Wrapped polypropylene knitted bag on reducing elbow.
Put plastic cap on each end of stainless steel elbow.
Packed the 90 degree elbow into wooden case.
How to Guarantee the Quality of 90 Degree LR Reducing Elbow?
We will do strictly inspection as below step:
Visual the surface of 90 degree reducing elbow body.
Check the marking: “ASME B16.9 ASTM A403 WP310S 90 Degree Reducing Elbow LR 6″ x 4″ SCH40S″.
Measure the dimensions. Such as diameter, thickness, height from center to end.
Test material chemical composition of 90 degree reducing elbow.
How to Protect the Surface of 180 Degree Elbow?
Hot Dipped Galvanized
How to calculation weight of elbow
In a piping system, the elbow is a pipe fitting that changes the direction of the pipe. According to the angle, there are 45 ° and 90 ° 180 ° three kinds of the most commonly used, according to the project also includes 60 ° and other non-normal angle elbow. Elbow materials are cast iron, stainless steel, alloy steel, malleable cast iron, carbon steel, nonferrous metals and plastics. Elbow weight calculation formula:
Ring volume = 2X3.14X3.14 (r ^ 2) R
r – radius circle
R – radius of gyration of the ring
Hollow tube ring volume = 2X3.14X3.14 ((r^2) – (r’^2)) R
r’- circle radius of the inner circle
90,60,45 degree elbow (elbow), respectively corresponding to the volume of the hollow tube ring volume of 1/4, 1/6, 1/8. The density of steel engineering calculations by weight 7.85 kg / dm, density X volume = weight (mass). Note:
1. 180 ° elbow calculated by the table 2 times, 45 ° by 1/2;
2. R1.0DN elbow weight calculated according to Table 2/3;
3. The table does not list the weight of the wall thickness, preferably with the similar two weight calculation of the average;
4. 90 ° elbow calculation formula; 0.0387 * S (D-S) R / 1000 where S = wall thickness mm D = diameter mm R = bending radius mm.
One of the most common Pipe Fittings Manufacturing Process for manufacturing Elbows Or Pipe Bends from the pipe is mandrel method which is kind of hot forming methods.
In this method, the pipe is cut in pieces and push with the help of hydraulic ram. It is pushed over a die called “mandrel” which allows the pipe to expand and bend simultaneously.
This method can be used to manufacture a wide range of the diameter of elbows or pipe bends
ELBOWS Or Pipe Bends Mandrel method
In cold Extrusion method, a pipe with the same diameter as finished product is pushed through a die and formed into its desired shape. Usually applied to stainless steel small to medium sizes elbows or pipe bends.
UO method is used to manufacture medium size of the elbow, tee, and reducers. The plate is cut out into a specially designed shape, it is formed first into a U-shape using a die and then into an O-shape or tubular form using another die, that is why this method is known as UO method. Once the fittings formed in tumbler shaped it is welded from inside and outside of the closing seam. A cut plate is 1st from in U shape and then in O shape.
Hot Forming Method
In a Hot Forming Die Bending method, a Pipe is heated to forming temperature & formed in the die with the specific shape, this process may be repeated as needed to obtain the required shape, size and wall thickness. Usually applied to thick-wall items that cannot be bent on a mandrel die.
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